Aachen - A German city located close to the Dutch and Belgian borders. The actual location of the city is 50 47N and 6 05E. An important railway line ran through this city. Aachen was bombed heavily during the RAF 'Battle of the Ruhr,' as it was known to Bomber Command, during a five-month period in the middle of 1943. Their targets inside the city included munitions plants, oil refineries and a large railroad marshaling yard. Aachen was also a geographical reference point that Allied bomber pilots anticipated on their return trips from missions deep in Germany in 1943, because it marked the outer arc of the P-47 Thunderbolt's effective escort range. Once the P-51 Mustangs became widely deployed, this ceased to be significant. Aachen fell to the Allies on the 21st of October of 1944.
Abbeville - An airfield in France located at 50 06N and 1 50E. Abbeville was home to the fourteen Bf 110's of I/ZG 26 of Luftflotte 2. Later it was home to the yellow-nosed squadrons of Goring's finest fighter pilots, known as the Abbeville kids. In the summer of 1942 this field was home to II/JG 26 and their Fw 190's. In May of 1943, 2/JG 2 was based here with the same type of aircraft. This airfield was liberated by the Allies in the summer of 1944.
Achmer - This German airfield was the home of I/KG 57 and its Me 262's in the spring of 1945. It was also home in February of 1945 to Arado Ar 234 jet reconnaissance bombers. Its location at 52 18N and 7 52E in northwest Germany put it in range to protect the vital Ruhr valley and also in almost a direct line to intercept missions by Allied bombers deep into German territory (for example, against Berlin).
Alconbury - Lies between Kettering and Cambridge at 52 22N and 0 08W. In the spring and summer of 1942 this base was used by RAF bombers. This was also one of the airfields used by Eighth Air Force bombers, in particular the B-17's of the 95th Group. On the 27th of May, 1943, there was an explosion while loading aircraft for a mission; four B-17's were destroyed and 11 others damaged. Nineteen men were killed in the explosion. The 482nd Bomber Group, also B-17's, were stationed here for a time.
Altenstadt - This German airfield lies in the south central portion of the country, just west of the border with Czechoslovakia at 49 48N and 12 10E. Several units rotated through Altenstadt over the course of the war, but the airfield itself holds no special historical significance. The facilities were fairly routine for airfields of the period, including fuel and munitions dumps, hangers, barracks and supporting infrastructure.
Amiens - A small town in France, its actual location is 49 54N and 2 18E. A prison was here and some of the unwilling tenants were resistance fighters interned by the Germans during the occupation. This was the target for a British precision-bombing raid on the 18th of February 1944. The objective of the raid was to release French resistance workers in preparation for the Normandy landings. Although 87 prisoners were killed during the bombing, more than 250 escaped. Other historical targets included a small railyard and two bridges. The importance of this target increased just before the landings at Normandy, as it then became vital to sever all lines of advance for German reinforcements to the beachhead area.
Amsterdam - A city in the Netherlands located at 52 22N and 4 54E, it was an industrial target of UK-based bombers of the Allied forces. The primary targets in Amersterdam were an aircraft manufacturing plant, a railyard, and the transportation network (particularly two reinforced iron bridges: one for vehicle traffic, one for the railroad lines). Once the Allied air campaign gained momentum, Germany transferred additional AAA units to the city to protect these targets collectively, but their primary concern was the aircraft plant.
Andrews Field - Station 485, Essex, also known as Great Saling field. This bomber field lies north of Chelmsford in the eastern portion of Britain at 51 50N and 0 37E. During the later stages of the war, this field was the home of the 322nd Bomber Group of the 8th Air Force and their B-26 Marauders.
Anklam - A German city on the north edge of the country, this urban area lies close to the Baltic Sea at 53 51N, 13 41E. Anklam didn't contain a port facility, but it was one of many Fw-190 manufacturing sites. Some components of the aircraft assembly were produced in excess at this site. These were stored in a large warehouse complex until they could be shipped by rail to other FW-190 assembly sites in Germany. Consequently, the RAF and Army Air Corps targeted each of these facilities from time to time to disrupt the process.
Antwerp - This port city in the Netherlands lies at map coordinates of 51 13N and 4 25E. During German occupation, the Ford and General Motors plants here were heavily bombed by the Eighth Air Force in May of 1943. The city became the Allies' main port for supply in Europe after it was recaptured in 1944. Primary targets included an aircraft plant, a large railroad marshaling yard, the aforementioned automotive industrial complex, multiple shipyards, and several extensive warehouse facilities. Secondary targets included three major bridges that facilitated the flow of war materials in and out of the city.
Arnhem - This Netherlands city, located at 52 00N and 005 53E, was the site of the failure of Operation Market-Garden. Had the plan succeeded, Operation Market-Garden would have carved a direct path into the heart of Nazi Germany. The strategy called for Allied paratroopers to take and keep three key bridges in the occupied Netherlands until a Belgium-based Allied land force could penetrate German lines to secure the river crossings. However, 11,000 members of the British First Airborne Division were stranded due to faulty equipment, delays in getting tanks and artillery through the narrow road from Belgium and heavier-than-expected German resistance. Twenty-three hundred troops made it to the Rhine's south bank; 7500 Allied soldiers were captured, most of them wounded.
Arras - A French town in the northern part of the country at map coordinates of 50 17N and 2 47E. A battle between Allied tanks and German aircraft took place here while the Allies were attempting to break out of the trap at Dunkirk. This was also the site of an airfield while occupied by the Germans. Arras was never a major industrial site, but some small arms assembly was accomplished there. As such, Arras was only targeted occasionally. Accordingly, the air defenses were relatively light.
Aschersleben - A town in central Germany located at 51 45N and 11 27E. This city housed the AGO (a factory which produced Focke-Wulf Fw 190's). This city was also home to a Ju 88 night-fighter factory during the war and limited Bf 110 production early in the war. Oil refineries were present, as were significant aviation gas storage facilities. Aschersleben had an appropriately large railhead to facilitate shipment of its wartime production to the front. AAA concentrations in the area were average for a medium-sized town with important, but not irreplaceable, industrial facilities.
Audembert - An airfield in France near Calais at 50 53N and 1 51E. This field was very close to the English Channel at its narrowest point. The distance to England after takeoff from this airfield is less than thirty miles. Naturally, the field had its heyday during the Battle of Britain, but it remained a viable German facility until after the Normandy invasion in 1944. It primarily served Bf 109 squadrons, but other sorties flew out of this field from time to time.
Augsburg - Another industrial target, this city is located in the southern portion of Germany off of a tributary of the Danube River at 48 23N and 10 53E. This city contained several important facilities that were repeatedly bombed during the strategic air campaign in 1943 and 1944. These included multiple aircraft manufacturing plants, an aircraft engine assembly line, a small armaments factory, a shipyard, maritime and aviation fuel oil storage facilities and a vast warehouse complex. Several bridges across the Danube were strategically significant as well. Augsburg was a prime target for many reasons, so the Germans placed heavy concentrations of flak guns in the area, and routinely scrambled extra fighter groups, when possible, to intercept Allied formations moving toward this site.
Bassingbourn - Station 121, Cambridgeshire. This airfield lies between Cambridge and Bedford at 52 04N and 0 03W, and was home to the USAAF's 91st Bomber Group and their B-17's. In March of 1945, this base became the home of the 1st Scouting Force Squadron and their P-51's. The scouting force units did many things that used to be done by the bombers, checking the weather over a target and marking targets for example.
Beachy Head - A British early-warning radar station located at 50 55N and 00 13E. Fighter Command relied on these sites to provide notification of approaching enemy formations in sufficient time to scramble RAF resources to intercept them. Although the radar technology was crude by current standards, the British sites performed admirably during the campaign. Once German attention shifted from destruction of these sites to concentration on RAF airfields, the radar sites can certainly be credited with preventing a greater number of RAF aircraft from being destroyed on the ground.
Beaumont-le-Roger - In the spring of 1944, Allied commanders commenced planning of Operation Overlord. By the beginning of May, airfields and usable landing grounds in an arc 130 miles around Caen, codenamed Area I, were marked for destruction by the Eighth Air Force, the AEAF, and the RAF Bomber Command. On the 11th of May, the Ninth Air Force bombed the city, located at 0 48E and 49 07N, with 37 B-26s.
Beauvais - One of the fields for Kampfgeschwaders 1 & 76, part of Luftflotte 2, which was under the command of Field Marshall Albert Kesselring. These bomber groups primarily flew He-111's and Do-17's. They also had one Gruppe of Junkers Ju 88's. The primary formation that used Beauvais was I Gruppe of Kampfgeschwader 76, which flew Do-17's.
Belfort - A French city at 47 38N, 6 50E in the eastern portion of the country. This city lays within 20 miles of both the German and the Swiss borders. Belfort was insignificant other than as a small railhead for troop movements and limited shipments of war materials. AAA concentrations in the area were light to non-existent, depending on the avenue of approach to the target.
The capital city of Germany, located at 13 25E and 52 31N, was
first attacked by the British in 1940. After the attack, the Luftwaffe's
focus shifted to English cities and away from British Fighter
Command. At the time, during the Battle of Britain, this was a
critical mistake as Germany had the British defenses near collapse.
Starting in August of 1943, Berlin was the target of an off-and-on
bombing offensive by the RAF's Bomber Command. The idea was to
get Germany to surrender by breaking the morale of its people.
It was equally as unsuccessful as Hitler's attempts to accomplish
the same end during the "Blitz" on London in 1940. This
RAF offensive ended in early 1944 after high losses and assignment
of Bomber Command resources to invasion preparation. The American
Eighth Air Force also performed many daylight raids on Berlin.
Berlin was home to numerous critical industries and research and development facilities. These included, amongst others: a large ball-bearing plant (which was the major source of aircraft grade ball-bearings after Schwienfurt) , a chemical plant (which produced rocket fuel, among other things), several aircraft and tank assembly lines, multiple ammunition and arms factories, a huge marshaling yard, multiple warehouse complexes and several significant bridges that were used to transport war materials in and out of the city. Berlin was, as one might expect, the most heavily defended of all German population centers. Pilots can expect determined fighter resistance and extremely heavy flak concentrations.
Bernburg - A city in Germany located at 51 48N and 11 44E south of Magdeburg in the central portion of the country and off a tributary of the Elbe River. This city was the home of a German Junkers Ju 88 aircraft factory. It was repeatedly attacked during the 'Big Week' of February, 1944. Because of the attacks, production stopped for four months on this night-fighter aircraft. German air defenses were medium strength.
Bethune - A city in France at 50 30N and 2 28E west of Lille in the northern corner of the country. Bethune was a small player in the industrial production effort. The primary target here was a small armaments factory. Anti-aircraft defenses were light.
Bielfeld - A city in Germany at 52 1N and 8 33E northeast of the Ruhr valley. Bielefeld was selected as a target for strategic bombing because of a small ball-bearing plant located within the confines of the city. This plant was not as important as the complexes around Schwienfurt to the German logistical pipeline, but it could supplement lost production at those other facilities since the Allies paid a lot more attention to keeping them out of action over the course of the war.
Biggin Hill - An RAF sector field of the No. 11 Group in southern England located at 51 19N and 0 03E. This station performed some vital radar testing in the late 1930's. In July of 1940 it contained the No. 32 and 79 Squadrons of Hurricanes. Biggin Hill was slightly damaged by Luftwaffe bombing on the 18th of August and again on the 30th of August, 1940. This base was severely damaged on the 1st of September, 1940, with complete loss of communications and destruction of the operations room. Nowadays, this base serves the RAF as a major installation.
Bissel - A German airfield located at 52 55N and 7 38E close to the border with the Netherlands and the North Sea. This small airfield hosted Bf 109 squadrons throughout the war. Most often, these were used on sweeps over the North Sea. Standard aviation support facilities were present at the field.
Bodney- Home field of the 82nd Squadron of the No. 2 Group of Bomber Command, which was under the command of Air Vice-Marshal J.M. Robb. The primary aircraft of No. 2 Group during the Battle of Britain was the Blenheim IV.
Bohlen - This city is located at 51 12N and 12 23E in south central Germany. The city contained a German synthetic oil plant that was repeatedly bombed in May of 1944 by American bombers. The purpose of the bombing was to destroy the Nazi fuel industry, a surmised weakness which turned out to be accurate. Air defenses were moderate.
Bonn - Another German city that was an industrial target for bombing missions. It is located on the Rhine River in western Germany at 50 44N and 7 05E. Bombed heavily by the USAAF on August the 12th, 1943. The primary targets were a FW-190 aircraft plant, a small armaments factory and a railyard. Secondary targets included two stone road bridges and one wooden road bridge.
Borkheide - This German airfield is located approximately 30 miles south of Berlin at 52 12N and 13 34E. Its location made it one of the last operational airfields the Germans had at the end of the war in 1945. Several Fw-190 squadrons operated out of this field over the course of the war. Borkheide also served as a fuel depot for aviation gas reserves.
Bottrop - A city in Germany located in the Ruhr valley at 51 31N and 6 58E. This area was a concentration of steel mills and the industries that used the steel for manufacturing. This city itself was home to an oil industry plant, one of the vital German targets that was attacked in the month before the Allied invasion at Normandy.
Boulogne - This town is a coastal city in France that lies on the English Channel, close to its narrowest point, at 50 43N and 01 37E. Its location underneath the flight path of German bombers and fighters on their way to fight in the Battle of Britain made it the home of a German air sea rescue center during the occupation. This city was also an industrial target for Allied bombing early in the war. It was liberated from the Germans in the late summer of 1944.
Boxted - This airfield is located at 51 59N and 0 58E in England close to the coast and near the city of Ipswich. This was an airfield used by the USAAF's Eighth Air Force, in particular the 386th Bomber Group with their B-26's and the 56th Fighter Group with their P-47's.
Bramley - One of several small sites chosen by the War Ministry to station a concentration of anti-aircraft defenses during the Battle of Britain. Bramely was chosen because of its proximity to several southern approach lanes used by German bomber groups.
Brandenburg - This city in central Germany lies close to Berlin at 52 24N and 12 32E. It was bombed by the USAAF on April 10, 1945, during a strike against German airfields and jet assembly plants around Berlin. These strikes found that German air defenses were moderate to heavy near Brandenburg.
Brandis - This airfield in south central Germany was located east of Leipzig at 51 20N and 12 36E. In early 1945 this field contained the Me 163-1a Komets of II/JG 400, as well as Bf 109's.
Bremen - This is another German city that was an industrial target for Allied bombers during the war. Its location in northwest Germany at 48 24N and 4 29E put it on the target list early as it contained a Focke-Wulf components plant. This plant was attacked on the 17th of April, 1943. It was the subject of Eighth Air Force bombing raids on the 13th of November of 1943 and again on the 26th of November. Two more large attacks took place on the 16th and 20th of December of 1943. An attack here on the 12th of October of 1944 targeted this factory again along with the two Karl Borgward motor transport factories, which produced armored fighting vehicles. Bombing here eventually caused movement of the Focke-Wulf plant to Marienburg. There was a testing facility at a nearby airfield, and some Fw-190's were stationed there. Flak concentrations were dense near this target.
Bremerhaven - This German town was home to one of several submarine construction yards. Located at 53 33N and 008 35E, the facility had been heavily damaged by the British Bomber Command from April 1941 to June 1942. During the first half of 1943, bombing attacks were stepped up to stop U-Boat construction and repair.
Brest - The airfield here was home to a large portion of KGr 606's 29 Do 17 bombers of Luftflotte 3 on the 7th of September, 1940. This French Atlantic port at 48 24N and 4 29W was the home of some German U-boats, and as such was a priority target for bombing from October of 1942 till the spring of 1943. The French naval installation here also berthed the German Battle Cruiser "Gneisenau" during 1941. The German ships "Prinz Eugen" and the "Scharnhorst" were also here in early 1942 before their escape. Other targets included numerous fortified bunkers and coastal defenses, as well as petroleum storage facilities and a warehouse complex. Flak concentrations were moderate to heavy.
Briest - A town in central Germany located close to and east of Berlin at 52 23N and 13 04E. It was bombed on the 10th of April, 1945, by the USAAF. Targets on that day were airfields and jet assembly plants around Berlin.
Brooklands - One of several small sites chosen by the War Ministry to station a concentration of anti-aircraft defenses during the Battle of Britain. Brooklands was chosen because of its proximity to several southern approach lanes used by German bomber groups.
Brunswick - An industrial city in the heart of Germany at 52 16N and 10 31E. This city was placed on the target list of Allied Bomber Command as it contained industry vital to Germany's aircraft industry. Primary targets included a small oil plant, Me-110 and Me-109 aircraft plants, an airfield, an armaments factory and a oil storage facility. Secondary targets around the city included one stone road bridge, one iron road bridge, one stone rail bridge and one iron rail bridge. Ground-based AAA fire was fairly intense.
Brussels - The capital city of Belgium located at 50 50N and 4 20E. This city became an Allied industrial target for bombing during its occupation by German forces. This city was liberated from the Germans in late 1944. Primary targets included a large rail marshaling yard and a Fw-190 components facility. Three bridges were the primary transportation arteries in and out of the city, two of stone construction and one iron railroad bridge.
Brux - This city is located in northwest Czechoslovakia near the German border at 50 32N and 13 39E. It contained a German synthetic oil plant and was bombed several times in May of 1944 during the Allied bombing offensive against the Axis fuel industry.
Caen - This French city is located at 49 11N and 0 21W in the northern portion of the country and lies close to the English Channel. The airfield here contained elements of two German squadrons on the 7th of September, 1940. A portion of I/ZG 2's ten Bf 110's were stationed here, along with a portion of KGr 806 and their 18 Ju 88's. Later, in the summer of 1942, it was home to 10 (Jabo)/JG 2 and their Bf 109F-4's. Caen's tactical significance increased once plans for the Normandy invasion were approved.
Caffiers - This airfield located in the northern corner of France lies very close to the English Channel at 50 45N and 1 42E. It was used by the Germans in the Battle of Britain and in the defense of the continent until its liberation by the Allies in 1944 after the invasion at Normandy. Several Bf 109 squadrons rotated through this field at different times. Caffiers was also a significant fuel and ammunition dump.
Calais - This French port city at 50 57N and 1 50E was attacked by German Stukas during the invasion of France and then surrendered later that day after attack by German ground forces. This city's proximity to the English Channel made it the perfect spot for launching the V-1's. Late in the war, the Germans built six V-1 launching ramps in this area, which became an important target for bombing and strafing runs by fighters. As with many other port cities, Calais contained significant coastal defense sites as well, most of which were heavily fortified. These were attacked routinely prior to the Normandy invasion, primarily as a diversion to mask the location of the actual landing sites.
Cambrai - This small French town in the northern part of the country near the border with Belgium at 50 10N and 3 14E was the scene of a battle between German aircraft and Allied tanks trying to break out of the trap at Dunkirk. The airfield here was used by the Germans after the town's capture in 1940. Both Me-109 and Fw-190 squadrons were stationed at Cambrai.
Canterbury - A city located in southeastern England inland from the coast of Dover at 51 16N and 1 6E.
Chailey - This British airfield is located in southern England north of Brighton at 50 58N and 0 01W. Spitfires operated out of this field throughout the war.
Chartres - This town lies in the middle northern portion of France between Le Mans and Paris at 48 27N and 1 30E. On the 7th of September, 1940, the airfield here contained 22 He 111's from II/KG 55 of Luftflotte 3. These light bombers were used in the Battle of Britain against English targets.
Chaumont - A city in France at 48 7N and 5 8E in the mountainous eastern portion of the country. The airfield here was used by the Germans during the time the city was occupied from 1940 through 1944. Me-110 squadrons were the primary occupants of the field, but other flights staged out of Chaumont preparatory to certain specific operations.
Chelveston - This airfield in England was used during the war by the Eighth Air Force, and in particular, the 305th Bomber Group and their B-17's. The exact location of the field is 52 18N and 0 29W just north of the Ouse River east of Northampton.
Chemnitz - This German city is located southwest of Dresden and north of the Czechoslovakian border at 50 50N and 12 55E. Home of a synthetic oil plant, this city was repeatedly attacked in May of 1944 in the Allied bombing offensive against the German fuel industry. The city was attacked again in an American daylight bombing raid on the 6th of February, 1945. Chemnitz was also involved in production of Bf 109 aircraft components, ammunition assembly and several other supporting functions to the German manufacturing effort. All of these facilities were targeted as well at different points in the war, but generally they were designated as secondary targets. The synthetic oil plant was usually the focus of attention.
Cherbourg - A French port city on the English Channel south of Portsmouth at 49 39N and 1 39W. During the war the Germans planned to invade England, with this city as one of the major staging points. It was also the home of an airfield. On the 7th of September, 1940, it contained half of the Do 17's that were part of KG 606 also stationed at Brest. In addition to the airfield, targets included dry-docks and ship repair facilities, coastal defense forts and warehouses. AAA concentrations were moderate.
Chiévres - This Belgium location at 50 35N and 03 49E suffered some bombing damage, but by February 1945 the 352nd and 361st Fighter Groups moved here to establish a command position.
Cologne - This German city is located on the Rhine River east of where the border between the Netherlands and Belgium meets the German one at 50 56N and 6 59E. It was the subject of a devastating attack conducted by the RAF on the night of May 30th, 1942. The Kolnische Gummifaden Fabrik (a tire and tube factory) was completely destroyed in this attack. The marshaling yard here was also bombed by the USAAF on August 9th, 1943. Several other industrial facilities were targets at various points during the war as well, including: a small oil plant, two medium sized chemical plants, a large armaments factory, a railroad station and switching facility, warehouses and two oil-storage tanks. Several bridges were strategically important as well. After-action reports recorded considerable flak concentrations near this target, and a high frequency of intercept by German fighters.
Cormeilles - Actually Cormeilles-en-Vexin, this airfield was the home of German day fighters (specifically the Bf 109G-10's of I/JG 2) in 1944. This field is located in France south of Le Havre and east of Caen at map coordinates of 49 15N and 0 23E. On the 3rd of June, 1944, this unit's strength was 23 aircraft, of which 15 were serviceable. Fw-190's were present later in the war.
Creil - This city in France at 49 16N and 2 29E lies north of Paris on a tributary of the Seine River. It was targeted by bombers due to the large railyards there. It also was home to a German airfield. On the 7th of September, 1940, this airfield contained the 21 Ju 88's from II/KG 76 of Luftflotte 2. On the 3rd of June, 1944, it contained the three Bf 109G-10's of Stab JG 2.
Croydon - An RAF satellite field in the Kenley sector for the No. 11 Group. In July of 1940 this field contained the No. 111 and 501 squadrons of Hurricanes. Croydon was hit hard in a bombing attack on the 31st of August, 1940. The exact location of the field is 51 23N and 0 06W just south of the Thames River and east of London.
Cuxhaven - This was an airfield operated by the Germans in the northern corner of France near the Belgian border at 50 15N and 3 30E. It was liberated in late 1944 by the Allied forces. Cuxhaven is also the name of a small German city on the North Sea coast of the country.
Darmstadt - This was a primary railway target of Allied Bomber Command. The town is in western Germany close to the Rhine River, specifically at 49 51N and 8 40E. The airfield here was the home of II/JG 11 and their Fw 190's in early 1945.
Debden - Station 356, Essex. An RAF sector field of the No. 11 Group. In July of 1940 it contained the 17th Squadron with 14 Hurricanes. This airfield is located at 52 11N and 0 10W. Debden was attacked by three Do 17's on the 26th and 31st of August, 1940. American planes of the 4th Fighter Group (P-51's) were stationed here later in the war.
Deelen - Actually called Deelen-Arnhem, this airfield was located in Holland at 52 03N and 6 06E. This base was the headquarters of the German Third Fighter Division while occupied. On the 3rd of June, 1944, this base was a haven for German night-fighter aircraft. On this date 32 night-fighters, mostly Ju 88G-1's and Bf 110G-4's, of four different German squadrons were here.
Dessau - An industrial city in eastern Germany at 51 51N and 012 15E which was home of a Junkers aircraft factory. Dessau, 35 miles north of Leipzig, is on the west bank of the Mulde River, two miles above its junction with the Elbe. In addition to being heavily bombed, intensive ground fighting caused major damage.
Detling - An air base in Kent, Hornchurch sector of the No. 11 Group. This base was severely damaged in an attack on the 13th of August 1940. All in all, 22 British aircraft were destroyed along with the operations block and 67 British airmen were killed. The effort was wasted at the time, because this base was not a base of British Fighter Command, the actual target of the raid. Detling was bombed again on the 1st of September of 1940.
Diepholz - A city in Germany located at 52 37N and 8 22E in the northwest corner of the country southwest of Bremen. Diepholz didn't receive a lot of attention from Allied Bomber Command. Primary, it was significant because of a Ju 88 components factory. Some logistics support facilities here were occasionally targeted as well.
This western French fishing port and seaside resort is in the
department of Seine-Maritime. The 49 55N and 001 05E location
places it at the mouth of the Arques River on the coast of the
English Channel, 100 miles northwest of Paris and 60 miles northeast
of Le Havre.
On the 19th of August 1942, a force of 15,000 Anglo-Canadian soldiers attempted a reconnaissance raid; they held the beach for several hours, but half of their men were killed. The Allies successfully liberated the city in September 1944, after another prolonged battle.
Dortmund - A city in the Ruhr area of Germany located at 51 31N and 7 28E. This city was an industrial target for Allied bombing. The airfield here was home to the 25 Bf 109G-6's of II/JG 300 on the 3rd of June 1944. Dortmund was a fairly large target with multiple oil refineries, a small armaments plant, a large railyard, warehouse complexes and an airfield which was home to an Me-110 squadron. The Germans generally mounted a strong defense against raids directed at this target. AAA fire was always intense.
Dover - Home of the famous white cliffs that welcomed many Germans to England and many other airmen home from attacks against the Germans. Dover is the closest point to France in England. Large guns could shoot the fourteen miles across the English channel from this point, and did, until the British realized that the German return fire was more accurate and damaging. Dover is also a harbor, and the cliffs were the location of a British early warning radar site that was initially attacked by the Germans on the 12th of August, 1940.
Dresden - The city of Dresden was an industrial target in Germany for Allied bombing raids. It is located in southeastern Germany close to Czechoslovakia and sits on the Elbe River at 51 03N and 13 44E. In actuality this city had little heavy industry and was best known for its architecture and the quality and craftsmanship of the local china. As part of Operation Thunderclap (a British plan to bomb Berlin and other German population centers) the city was bombed on the night of February 13th, 1945, by over 800 British bombers. The city was lightly defended and the British only lost six bombers. Dresden itself was turned into a firestorm, due to a unique combination of atmospheric conditions. By the smallest estimates, roughly 50,000 people lost their lives that evening. Three hundred eleven USAAF bombers struck the city the next day, adding to the destruction.
Drope - An airfield in Germany at 52 35N and 7 14E. This airfield lies to the west of the Ems River near the border with the Netherlands. Both Bf 109 and Fw 190 squadrons were based at Drope.
Duisburg - Located in eastern Germany where the Rhine and Ruhr rivers meet, this was another industrial target of Allied bombing. This city was an inland port and contained much of Germany's heavy industry. Many of the surrounding towns contained steel rolling mills which fed Duisburg's factories. Primary targets included a Bf 110 airfield, an oil plant, several armaments plants and oil storage fields.
Dulmen - This city is on the Rhine in northwestern Germany at 51 51N and 6 16E. Its importance as an oil area for the Germans made it a target for Allied bombing, especially during the May of 1944 offensive against these type of targets. At Dulmen, the primary targets included a large oil plant, a He-111 aircraft plant, an airfield and a small armaments factory. Both Bf 109 and Bf 110 squadrons handled intercept duties out of the airfield near this target.
Dunkirk - An early warning radar site in Kent at 51 17N and 0 59E. First bombed on the 12th of August, 1940, in a German attempt to knock out the British early warning system.
Dunsfold - This British city lies in between Portsmouth and London at 51 09N and 0 30W. The city was home to a Spitfire manufacturing plant.
Düren - In mid-February 1945, the Allies resumed their push against the Seigfried Line. Progress was so tedious, however, that a large-scale effort was launched to take the Rhine valley. As the US Ninth Army carried out Operation Grenade on the 23rd of February, the left wing of the US First Armyon the right flank of the Ninth Armyassaulted and captured the German town of Düren at the location of 50 48N and 006 30E.
Dusseldorf - A German city on the Rhine River in eastern Germany at 51 12N and 6 47E. It was an industrial target for Allied bombers during the war. Targets here included an airfield, an armaments factory, a large marshaling yard, and several bridges. Ground based AAA fire was moderate near this target.
Duxford - This English air base was one of hundreds that the US Armed Forces used. Located at 52 30N and 00 10E, it served as the base for the USAAF's 78th Fighter Group, which flew hundreds of missions over Germany in the last years of the war. During the Battle of Britain, Duxford served as a nerve center for Britain's war effort.
Eastchurch - British coastal airfield in the Hornchurch sector of No. 11 Group. The base was located on an island at the mouth of the Thames, and was slightly damaged in German attacks on the 1st and 28th of August, 1940. Another bombing raid was aimed at this field on the 1st of September of 1940.
Echterdingen - This German airstrip lies in the southwestern portion of the country at 49 09N and 9 36E. The Luftwaffe used this field in operations against Allied bombers during the war. Fw-190's were based here.
Eindhoven - This Netherlands industrial center and rail junction at 51 26N and 005 30E was liberated in September 1944 in Operation Market-Garden. This major Allied effort succeeded, while the simultaneous landing at Arnhem failed.
Emden - A German city on the North Sea, this port lies close to the Netherlands at 53 22N and 7 12E. The city was an Industrial and shipping target for bombing. On December 11th of 1943 the Eighth Air Force attacked the city with 523 bombers. The focus of their attentions was the shipyards, maritime repair facilities, U-boat pens, bulk fuel oil storage tanks and torpedo assembly lines. Admiral Doenitz petitioned Goering to make sure that air defenses in Emden were strong relative to the size of the city.
Enfield - A city in the UK located at 51 38N and 0 5W just north of London. The target here was a large armaments factory. British air defense in the area was moderate.
Erkner - This German city is located southeast of Berlin in the eastern portion of the country at 52 25N and 13 45E. The city was home to a ball-bearing plant, vital to German industry, which were attacked by the USAAF on March 8th, 1944, and again on February 3rd, 1945. Secondary targets in this city included warehouses, two stone road bridges and one stone rail bridge.
Essen - This industrial target for Allied bombing lies in the northwestern corner of Germany north of the Ruhr River at 51 28N and 7 01E. The opening attack in the Ruhr air offensive of the RAF occurred here on the night of 5/6 March, 1943. One of the targets was the Krupp Armament Works. Other targets included a tank assembly line and munitions factory, as well as an oil refinery. The railroad switching yard was frequently disrupted as well, to keep Essen's industrial output from flowing to the front or to other assembly plants in the manufacturing process.
Évreux - This northwestern French city on the Iton River is 55 miles west of Paris. Located at 49 03N and 001 11E, the city's cathedralnoted for its fine stained glass windows and carved Renaissance altar screenswas badly damaged. It is on the Western Railway line between Paris and Cherbourg.
Fairlight - A British early warning radar station located at 50 53N and 00 40E. Fairlight was attacked by Ju 87 Stuka's on several occasions during the first phase of the Battle of Britain.
Florennes - A city in Belgium at 50 15N and 4 35E. On the 3rd of June, 1944, the airfield here was home to the night-fighters of I/NJG 4. At that time this squadron was outfitted with 19 Ju 88's and Bf 110's. Fw 190 Rottes operated out of this airfield on an attachment basis from time to time as well.
Flushing - An English Channel port on the Continental side in the Netherlands at 51 26N and 3 35E. It was occupied by the Germans from the spring of 1940 until late 1944. Its location close to England made it a prime spot for V-1 launching ramps. The Germans had as many as four ramps operational at Flushing at any given time. Flak concentrations near this target were light.
Ford - This British field was part of the Tangmere sector of the No. 11 Group during the Battle of Britain. Ford was heavily attacked by German bombers on the 18th of August, 1940. Later this airfield was home to a RAF bomber squadron.
Foreness - One of many British early warning radar station sites. These target types were attacked heavily in the first month of the Battle of Britain.
Framlingham - Station 153, Suffolk. The exact location of this field is 52 13N and 1 21E north of Ipswich. The Eighth Air Force operated the 390th Bomber Group and their B-17's from this field. "Buncher Eight", a navigational aid, was located here.
Frankfurt - This German city was primarily targeted by Allied bombing because of its extensive railyards. Like any large city it also had its share of industry. It is located in the central western portion of the country, just east of the Rhine River at 50 07N and 8 40E. Frankfurt was bombed by the USAAF on the 3rd of February, 1944. Targets in this city included an aircraft plant, an airfield that hosted Bf 110's, an armaments plant, a large railyard and a warehouse. Bridge targets included two stone road bridges, one iron road bridge, two stone rail bridges and two iron rail bridges over the tributary of the Rhine River that flows through the city.
Freiburg - Another railroad target for Allied bombing, this city lies in the southwestern corner of Germany, north of Switzerland at 48 0N and 8 25E. This city actually had little military importance, but was first bombed (as originally claimed by the Germans) by the RAF on the 10th of May, 1940. The Germans were incensed with this bombing as the raid killed 57 people, thirteen of them children, and responded in kind with non-military bombing missions. Thereafter the bombing of enemy populations, by both the British and the Germans, was common. As it later turned out, the bombing had actually taken place when German bombers on a mission to bomb a French airfield inadvertently bombed their own city.
Fulda - One of the last strongholds of German General Brenner and his 6th SS Mountain Division, this German town is located at 50 33N and 009 41E. On the 2nd of April, the Allied 26th Division cleared the town.
Funtington - A small city southeast of Bramley. Funtington was the site of a small RAF airfield for Hawker Hurricanes during the Battle of Britain, and other airframes later in the war.
Furth - This city was also an industrial target for Allied bombing early in the war. It is in the central southern portion of Germany close to Nuremburg at 49 28N and 10 59E. As an industrial target, it was repeatedly attacked by the Allies. Some of the targets in and around this city had to do with the German aircraft industry and there was at least one aircraft assembly plant here.
Gelsenkirchen - This city was part of the German oil industry and is located just north of the Ruhr River close to Essen at 51 31N and 7 07E. The last raid of the British Ruhr air offensive occurred here on the night of 9/10 July, 1943. The main targets in this city were the small and large oil plants and their four oil storage fields. Both Bf 109 and Fw 190 fighter squadrons were based at local airfields.
Gent - A city in eastern Belgium at 51 03N and 3 43E. This city was a target because of a small amount of industry there and also because of its railyards. It was liberated in late 1944 by the Allies.
Giebelstadt - This German airfield lies in the mountainous country between the Danube and the Rhine Rivers in the southwest portion of the country at 49 39N and 9 56E. One Bf 109 and two Fw 190 squadrons called Giebelstadt home at different points in the war.
Giessen - This German town at 50 35N and 008 42E was set as the competitive objective by General Patton. Patton's plan was to have the Third Army's VIII Corps, the 80th Division of the XX Corps and the XII Corps converge on Giessen and link with the First Army. Patton later revised the plan, eliminating the 80th Division.
Gotha - A German industrial target for Allied bombing. This city is located in the central portion of Germany at 50 57N and 10 41E. This city was home to a large Me-110 plant.
Gravesend - Another RAF satellite field, this base had an appropriate name for a fighter base. As one of the Biggin Hill sector fields of the No. 11 Group, this base held the No. 610 Squadron of Spitfires in July of 1940.
Great Dunmow - Another of the bomber fields in eastern Britain, this field lies at 51 53N and 0 22E between Ipswich and Luton.
Grimbergen - A city in Belgium at 50 56N and 4 22E. During the occupation of this country by the Germans, the airfield to the east of the town was used by the Luftwaffe.
Guyancourt - An airfield in France that lies to the southwest of Paris at 48 45N and 2 05E. After the fall of France in the spring of 1940, the Luftwaffe set up operations here in preparation for the Battle of Britain. On the 7th of September, 1940, it was home to a portion of II/ZG 2's ten Bf 110's.
Hagen - A small town in the Ruhr area of Germany at 51 22N and 7 28E, it was a secondary target on Allied bombing missions to the area. Hagen was home to a He-111 manufacturing plant.
Halberstadt - A city in Germany at 51 54N and 11 3E, it lies in the central portion of the country southwest of Magdeburg. The town was a small industrial and rail target for bombers. The targets included an Bf 110 aircraft plant, a large railyard and some munitions/supply stockpiles.
Halesworth - This airfield is located at 52 21N and 1 30E northeast of Ipswich and near the North Sea coast of England. The Eighth Air Force kept several groups of American planes here including the P-47's of the 56th Fighter Group, the B-24's of the 489th Bomber Group and the Catalina's of the 5th Emergency Rescue Squadron.
Hamburg - A German city located on the Elbe estuary, it was another of the Allied targets for industrial reasons. This city is located in northern Germany at 53 33N and 9 59E. The first firestorm occurred here on the morning hours of the 28th of July, 1943, after an RAF attack. The entire Hamburg Air Offensive lasted from July 24th to the 2nd of August, 1943. It was not very successful although it is said that 580 industrial and war production companies were destroyed or damaged. The city's production returned to 80% after five months but never achieved pre-raid levels. The Blohm and Voss U-boat yards at this port were damaged in the raids but not heavily. Another target in this city was the Klockner aircraft engine factory. It is estimated that some twenty seven U-boats never were produced due to the raids and their effects on industry.
Hamm - This German city was an Allied target due to its importance to Germany's railway system. It is located north of the Ruhr River in western Germany at 51 41N and 7 49E. The Marshaling yards here were under heavy attack in March of 1943. Other primary targets near Hamm included an armaments factory and a warehouse facility. A Bf 109 squadron was stationed at the local airfield. Ground based AA defenses were light to moderate strength.
Hannover - This German city was an industrial target and is located in north central portion of the country at 52 24N and 9 44E. Attacked first during "Little Blitz Week" in late July of 1943 by the USAAF. Another attack on the 20th of June, 1944, was centered on the Deurag-Negag Crude Oil Refinery. Bf 110 squadrons ran intercept missions out of the Hannover air strip. Flak concentrations in this area were moderate to heavy.
Harburg - A town in Germany at 53 27N and 9 58E it lies in the north central portion of the country just across the Elbe River from Hamburg. This was an industrial target for Allied bombing and the Luftwaffe maintained an airfield here. This city contained a chemical plant, a large armaments factory, two oil storage tanks, two warehouses and an airfield. The latter was home to an Bf 109 squadron.
Harwich - A city in the UK located at 51 56N and 1 17E it lies on the North Sea coast of England south of Ipswich. The primary target in Harwich was the shipyard and port facilities.
Hasselt - A town in Belgium at 50 56N and 5 21E it lies in the northeast corner of the country near the border with the Netherlands. This town was a small industrial target for Allied bombers during the German occupation. The town was liberated by the Allies in 1944.
Hawkinge - An RAF satellite field in the Biggin Hill sector of the No. 11 Group. In July, 1940 this base held the No. 245 Squadron of Hurricanes. Hit hard on the 12th of August, 1940, by German bombing attacks. Like Lympne and Manston this is one of the most forward (closest to the coast and France) airfields the British had.
Hayes - This English city lies just to the west of London at 51 31N and 0 25W. Hayes was home to several armaments and munitions plants, which made it a prime target for German bombing.
Heide - This German oil industry target lies in the very north portion of the country, close to the North Sea and in between the Elbe River and Denmark at 54 15N and 9 07E. These type of targets turned out to be a major weakness in the German fighting machine. In May of 1944, all petroleum processing and storage facilities were heavily bombed. The damage done was great, and Germany never had enough fuel for its planes after that month.
Heilbronn - This German city, located at 49 08N and 009 14E was in Württemberg. Württemberg had an area of 7,532 square miles, bounded by the former state of Baden on the west and north and by Bavaria on the east and south. The region is extensively hilly, with mountainous and wooded areas in the Black Forest, which extends along the western border of the former state, and in the Swabian Jura, a mountain range running diagonally across the region from the southwest. The Neckar River rises in central Württemberg, and the upper Danube flows across the area from the west to east.
Hethel - Station 114, Hethel. This English airfield lies just to the west of Norwich in the eastern portion of the country at 52 35N and 1 10E.The Eighth Air Force B-24's of the 389th Bomber Group were stationed here during the war.
Holmsley South - This British airfield lies at 50 51N and 1 47W along the Avon River west of Portsmouth. Spitfire and Typhoon squadrons operated out of Holmsley extensively until after the invasion, when many were forward deployed to newly recaptured fields in Europe.
Hornchurch - This British airfield lies just east of London and north of the Thames River at 51 34N and 0 12E. Another of the sector fields for the No. 11 Group, Hornchurch held the men and machines of the No. 65 Squadron with 11 Spitfires and the No. 74 Squadron with 10 Spitfires in July of 1940.
Horsham St. Faith - Station 123, Norfolk. The actual location of this field is 52 45N and 1 16E north of Norwich. The Eighth Air Force kept the B-24's of the 458th Bomber Group here during the war with Germany.
Hurn - This British city is located at 50 48N and 1 59W between Poole and Bournemouth on the English Channel coast of England. In addition to a local RAF airstrip, Hurn drew attention from the Germans because of several aircraft manufacturing and repair facilities.
Ijmuiden - A town in the Netherlands at 52 28N and 4 35E it lies against the North Sea coast of the country northeast of the city of Amsterdam. Nothing of major tactical significance occurred in this town over the course of the war.
Ingolstadt - A town in Germany located at 48 46N and 11 26E it lies in the southern portion of the country just north of the Danube River. The strategic targets in Ingolstadt consisted of one small oil refinery, an oil storage field, one small armaments factory, a railyard, one wooden road bridge and one iron rail bridge. These targets were lightly protected by several ground based AA batteries.
Ipswich - This town on the western coast of Britain at 52 04N and 1 10E was home to an early warning radar station. As such, Ipswich received raids almost daily during the first phase of the Battle of Britain. Pressure eased, however, after Hitler ordered the focus of the Luftwaffe bombing campaign to shift to London. This was a dire mistake, taken larger in response to a British bombing raid on Berlin. Hitler had sworn to the German people that such an event would never occur, and he did not relish having to swallow those words.
Jever - Located at 53 35N, 007 54E. Home of a Luftwaffe air base. Ju 88's, Bf 109's and Fw 190's operated out of this field at various points during the war. Jever was insignificant to German wartime production, so it was not targeted by the Allied strategic bombing campaign.
Juterbog - A city in Germany located at 51 59N and 13 5E it lies in the eastern portion of the country south and west of Berlin. The Luftwaffe operated an airfield here during the war. This field was manned by Bf 110 and Fw 190 squadrons.
Juvincourt - This French city at 49 30N and 003 30E was heavily bombed during the Eighth Air Force's large-scale missions on the 9th and 23rd of May to wipeout airfields prior to the D-Day invasion. More than 400 heavy bombers attacked airfields in a cluster around Paris with overall solid results.
Kaltenkirchen - This was a Luftwaffe operated airfield in Germany during the war. It is located in the very northern portion of the country north of Hamburg at 53 50N and 9 58E.
Karlsruhe - This German city was important to their railroad industry. It is located on the Rhine River close to the border with France at 49 03N and 8 24E. It also had a small airfield operated by the Luftwaffe. Bf 109's staged intercept missions from this field. Secondary targets at Karlsruhe included a small aircraft plant, a small armaments plant and three important bridges.
Kassel - This German city was an industrial target for bombing. It contained a vital Focke-Wulf production plant. It is located at 51 18N and 9 26E in the mountainous region of west central Germany.
Kenley - An RAF sector field in the No. 11 Group. In July of 1940 it contained the No. 64 Squadron with 10 Spitfires and the No. 615 Squadron with 12 Hurricanes. Attacked and severely damaged on the 18th of August, 1940, by German bombers. This attack put the field almost completely out of commission for several weeks.
Kiel - This German port city was an industrial target for Allied bombing. It is located on the Baltic Sea side of the Denmark peninsula at 54 20N and 10 08E. The main strategic targets in this city were the shipyards and the sub-pens for U-boats. Kiel was attacked again in April of 1945, primarily because their were more bombers than targets by that point in the war, as the ground forces were rapidly closing in on Berlin.
Kings Cliffe - The home airfield of the 20th Fighter Group of the Eighth Air Force in England, from the 26th of August, 1943, to the 11th of October, 1945. The 20th has the distinction of being the oldest group to be assigned to the Eighth Air Force for an extended period of time. During this period, the group flew 312 missions in P-38's and P-51's, claiming 212 air victories and 237 ground victories for the same. 132 squadron aircraft were lost in the process.
Kingston - A city in the UK located at 51 54N and 0 17W it lies across the Thames and slightly upriver or west of London. Nowadays this is considered to be part of Greater London. Kingston was targeted because it housed considerable heavy industry, but the primary targets were always the aircraft assembly plants located within the city.
Kirrlach - The airfield here at 49 09N and 8 13E lies just west of the Rhine River near the border with France. The Luftwaffe used this field during the war for both Bf 109 and Fw 190 squadrons. Flak concentrations in the area were light.
Knettishall - This field lies at 52 15N and 0 57E in between Ipswich and Norwich. This field was the home base of the 388th Bombardment Group of the 8th Air Force.
Koblenz - This German city lies on the Rhine River at 50 21N and 7 35E and was important to the German railroad system. As such, and because of the industrial targets in the city, it was a target for Allied bombing raids. Bf 110's were based at the local air strip. Primary targets over and above the railroad included four bridges. These became particularly important late in 1945, as Patton's Third Army was pushing to the Rhine and attempting to close off pockets of German resistance to keep these from combining into more cohesive defensive positions near Berlin.
Konigsburg - On the 29th of August, this German city was heavily attacked by 175 Lancasters. The Bomber Command was highly effective, leaving 134,000 people homeless in the single night attack. Only four aircraft were lost.
Kortrijk - A city in Belgium located at 50 50N and 3 17E in the northwestern portion of the country. The target here was a small armaments factory. Little else was strategically or tactically significant in Kortrijk.
La Pallice - This small French port city on the Atlantic coast at 46 10N and 1 10W was a priority target due to the German U-boat pens located here from October of 1942 till the Spring of 1943. Bombing of this target was ineffective due to the thickness of the reinforced concrete that protected the sub pens, although the surrounding city was largely destroyed.
Langley - A small city in England located at 51 30 N and 00 33 W. Langley was the site of a major concentration of anti-aircraft flak guns. This site was chosen because of its proximity to several common German approach routes during the Battle of Britain.
Laon - One of the larger airfields in France at 49 34N and 3 40E in the northern section of the country. This field was home to over 50 German aircraft on the 7th of September, 1940. These forces were comprised entirely of Ju 88 long range bombers of Stab KG 77, I/KG 77 and III/KG 77 all members of Luftflotte 2. At the time these bombers were being used in the Battle of Britain.
Laval - In late June and early July, The US First Army initiated the drive south through France, emphasizing speed to take advantage of the existing enemy dispositions. Starting on the 3rd of July, General Montgomery planned to strike through to the Caumont-Vire-Mortain-Fougeres line, with continuing objective to the Laval and Mayenne areas. The French city, at 48 04N and 00 45E, suffered significant damage.
Le Bourget - A town and an airfield near Paris, France at 48 56N and 2 26E. It was liberated from the Germans in the late Summer of 1944. Le Bourget was home to several German flak batteries because of its position relative to one of the major approach paths for Allied strategic bombing raids.
Le Culot - During the last week of April 1944, this French city and airfield was heavily strafed in preparation of D-Day. Approximately 100 B-17s were active in this pre-invasion campaign.
Le Touquet - This was a small shipping town on the coast of France. The Wermacht maintained several coastal defensive batteries in the vicinity of Le Touquet. Naturally, these received their share of attention during the pre-invasion air sorties in 1944.
Leavesden - This British town lies just north of London at 51 42N and 0 27W. Leavesden contained a large aircraft plant and several supply depots.
Lechfeld - This German airfield is located in the southern portion of the country, below the river Danube. Its location to the west of Munich at 48 10N and 10 50E lent itself easily to the defense of that major city. Lechfeld was one of the larger Luftwaffe facilities, housing fighter and bomber squadrons alike. The field's support facilities included two fuel dumps, a control tower, three hangers, three barracks and a HQ building. Because of its size, which also made it an attractive target, Lechfeld was more heavily defended by AA batteries than most Luftwaffe airfields.
Le Harve - Located in France where the English Channel and the Seine River meet at 49 30N and 0 08E.The airfield here contained the 19 Bf 109 fighters of III/JG 2 on the 7th of September, 1940. These were mainly used to protect the bombers going over to Britain and for fighter sweeps against Fighter Command. Other targets here consisted of a small armaments factory, three V-1 launching ramps, two forts, a stone road bridge and a wooden rail bridge.
Leipheim - This airfield is located just north of the Danube River in southern Germany. Its position at 48 27N and 10 13E allowed it to protect Augsburg. Several Fw-190 groups ran intercepts out of this field. Leipheim is relatively well defended by German Flak guns as well.
Leipzig - This German city, located at 51 19N and 12 20E, lies in the mountainous south central portion of the country. It contained vital industry for German aircraft production and as well as other wartime industries. As such, it fell under heavy attack during the big week of February, 1944. The actual aircraft in production here was the Bf 109. Leipzig was also significant because a local chemical plant produced some of the materials required by the V-1 rocket program.
Leiston - The airfield here is located at 52 12N and 1 34E on the North Sea coast of England near Ipswich. The Eighth Air Force kept the P-51's of the 357th Fighter Group here during the air war over Europe.
Le Mans - This French city lies in eastern portion of the country north of the Loire River. It was an industrial target during its occupation by the Germans. It also contained an airfield. It is now famous for the race that occurs there yearly. On the 7th of September, 1940, it was home to 12 twin engine Bf 110 fighters from II/ZG 76 of Luftflotte 3. The targets in this city were the one aircraft plant and the many bridges.
Leuven - A town in Belgium at 50 52N and 4 42E it lies in the central portion of the country. It was occupied by the Germans from 1940 till late 1944. The targets in this town included a small armaments factory, two stone road bridges and one stone rail bridge. German air defenses near Leuven were consistently light.
Leverkusen - A small German city located at 51 02N, 006 59E. Leverkusen was never of any major strategic value, but it did contain several small armaments factories. Consequently, as available sorties exceeded the number of high value targets (like Schweinfurt), or when recent raids had successfully disrupted production at the major facilities, targets like Leverkusen received the surplus of attention.
Liege - A town in Belgium laying in the eastern portion of the country at 50 30N and 5 30E. It was an industrial target for Allied bombers while occupied by the Germans. The targets here included an armaments factory, a small railyard, two stone road bridges, one iron road bridge, two stone rail bridges and an iron rail bridge. The town was moderately defended against bombing raids.
Lille - This French city at 50 38N and 3 04E was an Allied industrial target while occupied by the Germans. It contained a steel works and a locomotive and freight car factory. It's location in the north of France close to Britain also made it the home of a large airfield, on the 7th of September, 1940, it was home to 33 He 111's of Gruppe 53 and 9 reconnaissance Do 17's and Bf 110's of I(F)/22. First attacked by the USAAF in late 1942.
Lispe - This town at 51 40N and 8 19E lies in eastern Germany between the Lippe and Ruhr Rivers. The targets here were the small oil plant (with several oil storage tanks) and the wooden rail bridge. Flack concentrations near this target were moderate at best.
Lobnitz - This airstrip is located in Germany at 51 42N and 12 48E northeast of Tutow. Lobnitz was periodically used for test flights for new aircraft or new variations of existing aircraft. There is little else of tactical significance in this town.
Londinieres - A town in France at 49 50N and 1 25E it lies close to the English Channel. Londinieres was home to two V-1 launching ramps that were knocked out periodically by Allied bombing, then re-built religiously by the Germans each time, until Allied invasion forces overran this area in 1944. Ground based AA defenses were light in this target area, as most of them were devoted to the protection of heavy German industry by mid-1943.
London - The capital city of England. It's proximity to the coast made it a juicy target to the Germans during the Battle of Britain. Bombed heavily by the Germans in 1940 and 1941 the city was attacked not only as an industrial target but as a governmental and population center target also. The first V-1 rocket landed here in the middle of June 1944. The first V-2 rocket hit this city in September of 1944. The targets in London included an aircraft plant, a ship yard, maritime and aviation fuel storage fields, and numerous other military and economic objectives, but the real intent of these raids were to break the British will to fight.
Lorient - This French port city on the Atlantic coast at 47 25N and 3 23W was a priority target for Allied bombing from October of 1942 till the spring of 1943. While the surrounding city was practically destroyed the German submarine pens here were never really damaged heavily.
Lübeck - On 22 April, 1945, General Montgomery turned his attention on this German city located at 53 52N and 010 40E. Citing the goal to capture both this city and Hamburg, seal off the Schleswig-Holstein peninsula and clear the area to the Baltic. Once the 8 Corps secured a solid bridgehead east of the Elbe, the 5th Division was to take the right and the 11th Armored Division was to take the left. The 11th Armored Division advanced rapidly for fifteen miles and reached Wendorfabout half-way to Lübeck. After securing that position, the 11th Armored Division continued to Lübeck with little German opposition.
Ludwigshaven - This German city was an industrial target during the war and is located in the western portion of the country on the Rhine River at 49 29N and 8 26E. The city also contained synthetic fuel and chemical plants. A nearby airfield was the base of operations for a Bf 109 squadron. Flak concentrations near Ludwigshafen were moderate to heavy.
Lüneburg - This German city at 53 15N and 010 24E is on the Elbe Riverthe second most important river in Germany after the Rhine. The 11th Armored Division captured the city in mid-April 1944. Securing this city for the Allies also eased stores delivery when the railhead was opened.
Luton - This British city lies about 25 miles north of London at 51 53N and 0 25W.Luton was home of the Vauxhall works, an industrial target that was the subject of an air raid by the Germans on the 30th of August, 1940.
Lutzkendorf - This city in Germany at 51 15N and 12 08E was the home of a German synthetic oil plant and bombed heavily in may of 1944. The city lies to the west of Tutow in the central portion of the country.
Luxembourg - The Capitol city of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg. This country is located in between France, Belgium, and Germany. The city itself is located at 49 37N and 6 9E. The only worthwhile targets here were an armaments factory, a stone road bridge and a stone rail bridge.
Lympne - An airfield in the Biggin Hill sector of No. 11 Group. One of the most forward (close to the coast) airfields the British had during the Battle of Britain. Attacked at 0930 on the 12th of August, 1940, by the Do 17's I/KG 2.
Magdeburg - This German city was another of the many industrial targets for Allied bombing missions. It is located on the river Elbe at 52 07N and 11 38E in central Germany. In June of 1944 it was attacked to destroy its oil industry targets. As part of Operation Thunderclap it was repeatedly attacked in February of 1945 by U.S. daylight bombing runs. The strategic targets at this German city included a large oil plant, Bf 109 and Ju 88 assembly lines, an airfield, an armaments factory, a railyard, a small ship yard and numerous supporting facilities.
Mainz - This German city is located on the Rhine River in western portion of the country at 50 01N and 8 16E and was important to their railroad system. Additionally, Mainz was a production facility for artillery ammunition. The city was moderately defended by AA batteries.
Malmsheim - This was an airfield in Germany located at 48 27N and 8 53E. It lies in the southwestern corner of the country near the border with France and north of the Danube River. Fw-190 squadrons were based out of here throughout the war.
Mannheim - Another German city with important railroad switching systems. It is located on the Rhine River in the southwest portion of the country and close to the border with France at 49 29N and 8 29E. Additionally, Mannheim was an oil production and storage site. Other industrial targets included a chemical plant, an aircraft plant, an airfield, a large armaments factory and several important bridges. The airfield supported Bf 110 operations.
Manston - A satellite field for the RAF in the Biggin Hill sector of No. 11 Group. In July of 1940 this field contained the No. 600 squadron of Blenheims (8 a/c). At 1330 on the 12th of August, 1940, this field was attacked by Experimental Gruppe 210 and severely damaged. On the 24th of August, 1940, this field was so damaged by bombing that it only functioned as a forward refueling point for a while.
Marienburg - This German city in East Prussia was the home of a Focke-Wulf aircraft assembly plant. This plant produced half of all Fw-190's produced. The plant was destroyed in a precision daylight raid by USAAF bombers on the 9th of October, 1944.
Marquise - A German air base in France during the war at 50 49N and 1 42E. Home of II/JG51 in August of 1940. The field was the closest one the Germans had to England and lay almost right on the English Channel. Bf 109's conducted fighter sweeps and intercept missions out of this facility from the fall of France in 1940 until after the Allied landings at Normandy.
Martinvast - This French village lies south of Cherbourg near the channel at 49 31N and 1 28W. This target consisted of two V-1 sites defended by two light AA batteries.
Martlesham Heath - An RAF satellite field of the North Weald sector of No. 11 Group during the Battle of Britain. In July of 1940 it contained the No. 25 Squadron with six Blenheims and the No. 85 Squadron with 15 Hurricanes. Later it held the P-51's of the 356th Fighter Group.
Mechelen - A town in Belgium located at 51 2N and 4 29E. The only targets at this town were the wooden road bridge and the wooden rail bridge, each of which were lightly defended by mobile AA units.
Merston - This British airfield was located at 50 50N and 0 48W just east of Portsmouth on the English Channel. It was one of the Tangmere sector fields of the No. 11 Group of Fighter Command.
Merzhausen - This German airfield lies in southwestern corner of the country near the borders with France and Switzerland at 47 58N and 7 49E. Fw-190 squadrons operated out of Merzhausen.
Metfield - WWII home of the 491st Bombardment Group (H), nicknamed "The Ringmasters," from 25 April, 1944, to 15 August, 1944. This unit had the distinction of maintaining the highest operational rate of all European B-24 groups. The 491st flew 187 missions consisting of 5,005 sorties to drop 12,304 tons of bombs on their targets. Operational losses during the period were 70 bombers.
Metz - This French city lies close to the border of Luxembourg and Germany in the eastern portion of the country at 49 08N and 6 10E. Allied bombing raids focused on a small arms factory and a railyard. Four bridges near Metz were periodically targeted as well. Flak concentrations near Metz were reported as moderate.
Middle Wallop - A sector field for the No. 10 Group at 51 13N and 1 29W. In July of 1940 this field contained the No. 236 Squadron with 11 Blenheims and the No. 238 Squadron with 10 Hurricanes.
Mimoyecques - This small French town lies near the coast right next to the famous airfield at Abbeville. The actual location is at 50 04N and 1 45E. The only items of interest to Bomber Command were two V-1 sites.
Misburg - This German city near Hannover at 52 23N and 9 51E was important in that it contained an oil refinery. Bombed by the USAAF in June of 1944. Secondary targets included a supply dump, a small aircraft plant, an armaments factory and a large rail station.
Morlaix - A town in France located at 48 36N and 3 52W in the central portion of the country near the foothills of Frances eastern mountains. The Luftwaffe operated an airfield here during the occupation. Bf 109's were stationed here early in the war, but these squadrons upgraded to the Fw 190 once that airframe entered mass production.
Mulhouse - This French city against the German border was important to the Nazi railroad system and as such a target for Allied bombing. The city is located at 47 45N and 7 20E, very close to the border with Switzerland. Additional targets included a small oil plant, a small armaments factory, and oil storage facilities. Secondary targets included a stone road bridge, a wooden road bridge and a stone rail bridge.
Munich - This German industrial city lies in the south of the country between the River Danube and Austria at 48 08N and 11 34E. Besides being an important industrial target this city was also a chokepoint were many railheads converged. Allied pilots found Munich to be a "target-rich" environment, with many factories, warehouse complexes, munitions dumps and other strategically important drop points. Bf 109's were based at the local airfield, and these could be counted upon to scramble and intercept inbound raids.
Munster - This German city was important to the Nazi railroad system. It lies in the northwestern portion of the country close to the border with the Netherlands. Subject to a USAAF bombing raids in October, 1943 and again on the 22nd of December, 1943.
Nantes - A French town located at 47 13N and 1 33E in the northern portion of the country along the Loire River. The airfield here contained the other half of KGr 806 Ju 88's and were split between here and Caen during the Battle of Britain.
Needs Ore Point - This airfield lies just below Southampton on the English Channel coast of England at 50 49N and 1 27W.
Neinburg - This city was important to Germany's oil industry and as such an important target for bombing during the May of 1944 air offensive against these type targets. It is located in the northwestern portion of the country at 52 20N and 10 50E.
Neuburg - A town in Germany located at 48 44N and 11 11E it lies along the north edge of the Danube River in the southern portion of the country. Fw-190's were based at Neuburg.
Neuss - A town in Germany located at 51 11N and 6 42E it lies along the west edge of the Rhine River. The only targets of significance were an oil plant and its associated storage complex.
Newchurch - This British airfield lies inland from the cliffs of Dover and the English Channel coast at 51 04N and 0 49E.
Nidda - A city in Germany located at 50 23N and 9 1E northeast of Frankfurt in the western portion of the country. The airfield at Nidda was base to Fw 190 interceptors.
Nordhorn - A city in Germany located at 52 26N and 7 4E. The city lies to the west of the Ems River right on the border with the Netherlands. The Luftwaffe operated an airfield here during the war, which was primarily used by Fw-190's. Air defenses in this area were light.
North Weald - An RAF sector airfield of the No.11 Group in southern England. In July of 1940 it contained the No. 56 and 151 Squadrons of Hurricanes with 16 and 14 aircraft respectively. Heavily bombed on the 24th of August, 1940, by the attacking Germans. Serious damage to the field was done in another attack on the 3rd of September, 1940.
Northolt - Another of the sector fields in the key No. 11 Group which bore the brunt of the fight during the Battle of Britain. In July of 1940 this base contained the No. 604 Squadron with 10 Blenheims, the No. 1 Squadron with 10 Hurricanes and the No. 609 Squadron with 15 Spitfires at its disposal. This base also controlled the satellite field at Hendon with was home to the No. 257 Squadron with 12 Hurricanes in July of 1940.
Norwich - A town in the UK at 52 38N and 1 18E in eastern England. Norwich was not directly targeted as a rule, but it had local AA batteries that frequently engaged inbound and outbound raids, and these returned fire on occasion.
Nuremburg - A German industrial city in the south central portion of the country at 49 27N and 11 04E. The Nuremburg raid mounted by the RAF on the night of 30/31 March, 1944, is considered to be one of the greatest air battles in history. Over 100 RAF bombers were lost on the mission compared to the 10 German night-fighters lost. It was one of the last great efforts the Luftwaffe managed before their downfall due to fuel shortages and other reasons.
Nuthampstead - The home airfield of the 55th Fighter Group of the Eighth Air Force from 16 September, 1943, to 16 April, 1944. The 55th was the first P-38 group to go into combat with the Eighth, and they were subsequently based at Wormingford. They began conversion to the P-51 in July, 1944. Collectively, this group destroyed more railroad trains by strafing than any other unit. The group's war record was as follows: 316.5 air victories, 268.5 ground victories, 181 squadron aircraft lost or missing in action.
Offenburg - This German city lies in the southwestern corner of the country along the Rhine River and the border with France at 48 28N and 7 57E. It's strategic importance lay in its value to the railroad industry of Germany. Other strategic targets at Offenburg included an aircraft plant and an armaments factory.
Oldenburg - This German community at 53 00N and 008 00E was one of the testing grounds for Allied "robotic" bombings in early 1945. A half-dozen missions involving eleven robot B-17s had been carried out against Oldenburg and a couple of other communities.
Oranienburg - On the 20th of April, 1945, the USAAF bombed the marshaling yards in this town in one of the closing bombings of the war. It had just been bombed ten days earlier also. This German town was also home to an airfield and its location just to the north of Berlin at 52 45N and 13 14E made Oranienburg tactically significant in the capital city's defense. Two Fw-190 squadrons were based here but, by the time the Allied ground forces had advanced to within striking range of these fields, shortages of fuel, spare parts and experienced pilots ensured that the squadrons were virtually ineffective.
Oschersleben - A German industrial city located in the central portion of the country close to the Elbe River at 52 01N and 11 13E. It was home of valuable German aircraft production plants for the FW 190 and as such was bombed whenever possible by the Allies. It was repeatedly bombed during the "Big Week" of February, 1944.
Osnabruck - This city lies in the northwestern region of Germany at 52 16N and 8 02E. It was of strategic importance to the railroad system of the country. Bombed by the USAAF on the 22nd of December, 1943. The primary targets at Osnabruck included the airfield (which based Bf 110's), the armaments factory, a large railyard, a ship yard, an oil storage facility, two warehouse complexes, a wooden road bridge and a wooden rail bridge.
Ostend - This Belgium city, situated on the North Sea about 15 miles, west of Bruges at 51 13N and 02 55E is the terminus of a vast network of canals, and solid rail connections with the rest of Belgium and Europe. The city was occupied by German forces and suffered heavy bombardments.
Ostermoor - A Luftwaffe air base that was used for a short period of time by Lufflotte 2 units, primarily flying Ju 88's.
Paderborn - On 29 March 1945, Lt. Col. Walter B. Richardson commanded a task forcecomplete with three Pershing tanksand led the 3rd Armored Division advance to Paderborn. Task Force Richardson crashed through some roadblocks, occasionally shot up the landscape, routed German forces who were unaware that American troops were nearby and plunged rapidly forward. The longest delay occurred in Brilontwenty-five miles short of the 51 43N and 008 44E destinationwhen a warehouse of champagne was discovered. The next day, the slightly hung-over troops bumped into a defensive line manned by students of an SS panzer reconnaissance training battalion and an SS tank training and replacement regiment banded together with the SS Ersatzbrigade Westfalen. The bloodbath ended on 18 April with a final capitulation of 317,000 prisonersincluding 30 generals.
Parchim - A small industrial city in Germany located at 53 26N and 11 51E. Primary intercept tasking in the area fell to Jagddivision 1. Parchim wasn't specifically targeted by the Allied strategic bombing campaign frequently, but Luftwaffe ground controllers used nearby ground radio beacons to guide intercepts around Parchim as Allied formations passed nearby enroute to other targets.
Paris - The Capitol City of France, it lies along the Seine River and was an industrial target for Allied bombing. One hundred twenty eight USAAF bombers attacked this city on the15th of September, 1943, and it was attacked again on the 26th of November, 1943. Destroyer School 1 at Orly airfield was used to train German pilots how to attack American B-17's using captured and flyable aircraft. Other targets in the city included a small ball-bearing plant, a small aircraft plant, an armaments factory, a large railyard, three warehouse facilities, two stone road bridges, an iron road bridge, a stone rail bridge and an iron rail bridge. The air defenses near Paris were light considering the amount of targets. This was a tactical oversight that the Germans paid for in lost production.
Peenumunde - This city was an industrial target for Allied bombing. Its is located on the Isle of Usedom in the Baltic Sea just away from the German coast at 54 08N and 13 46E. The first flight of a V-1 took place here at the test facilities in December of 1942. A lot of the testing for the V-2 took place here also. Because of this sites importance in the research and testing of the German V weapons it was attacked heavily by Allied bombers late in the war. In addition to the launching ramps, bomber groups were ordered to focus on several chemical plants that produced rocket grade fuel, an oil storage tank, a warehouse and an airfield. The airfield at Peenemunde was one of the Luftwaffe's largest, and included extensive repair and refueling facilities as well as a major ammunition bunker.
Pevensey - The location of one of the British early warning radar stations at 50 49N and 0 20E between Dover and Brighton. Knocked out of action on the 12th of August, 1940, by a German attack of Experimental Gruppe 210. These were fighters loaded with bombs (Bf 110's) in an effort to get aircraft through the British defenses and home again. The British situation was such that they avoided German fighter sweeps and came up after the bombers.
Pilsen - A city in Czechoslovakia at 49 45N and 13 23E it lies in the western portion of the country on a tributary of the Danube River. It was bombed on April 17th, 1943, by the USAAF. The Skoda Arms Works here was a major target in the city. Additional targets included a small oil plant, an airfield (where both Bf 109's and Fw 190's were based), several munitions factories of varied size and importance, a supply dump, two stone road bridges, one iron road bridge and two iron rail bridges.
Plantluenne - This German airfield lies just east of the Ems River in the northwest portion of the country. This airfield contained the Ju 88C's of II/NJG 3 in 1944. In January of 1945, the base held the Fw 190D-9's of III/JG 26.
Poix - This airfield in France is located just west of Amiens at 49 47N and 1 59E. In September of 1942 it contained the Fw 190's of III/JG 2. In April of 1943 this field contained the Bf 109G's of I/JG 27.
Poling - This British early warning site lies to the east of Portsmouth at 50 51N and 0 34W.
Pommssen - This German airfield lies in the mountainous southern portion of the country at 49 46N and 10 49E. Like almost every airfield in the country, it was used by the Luftwaffe for the defense of the Reich.
Pontoise - A city in France located at 49 03N and 2 05E just northwest of Paris. It became an industrial target for Allied bombers during its occupation by the Germans due to the presence of a small armaments factory. Secondary targets were a stone road bridge and a stone rail bridge. Only a few AA batteries defended this target.
Portsmouth - British harbor city and Naval base at 50 48N and 1 05W on the English Channel. The naval base here was heavily attacked by German bombers on the 24th of August, 1940. Another attack was attempted here on the 26th of August but was turned back by intercepting British fighters. Portsmouth's targets included an aircraft plant and a ship yard.
Quakenbruck - An industrial target in northern Germany. Primary air defense responsibility was held by Jagddivision 2. During an RAF attack on Frankfort on the night of 22/23 March, 1944, a twin engine fighter Gruppe from Westerland assembled over the radio beacon Hummer, proceeded toward Bremen and was directed into the bomber stream west of Quakenbrueck. Other intercepts were organized along the flight path by Jagddivisions 1 and 3. Total Allied losses were 34 bombers. Germany lost 8 aircraft with aircrew losses of 2 dead, 6 wounded, and 12 missing.
- This town in Great Britain lies just north of London at 51 42N
and 0 20W.
The target in Radlett was a large aircraft plant.
Rattlesden - Station 126, Suffolk. The location of this field is 52 09N and 0 52E just northwest of Ipswich. Some Eighth Air Force B-17's of the 447th Bomber Group were stationed here during the bombing campaign against Germany.
Raydon - Located at 52 06N and 1 03E near Ipswich this airfield was used by the Eighth Air Force fighters. From here the P-51's of the 353rd Fighter Group flew out on missions to protect American bombers.
Regensburg - This city is located in southern Germany on the river Danube at 49 01N and 12 06E. It was another of the Allied industrial targets. On the 17th of August, 1943, the USAAF attacked the Messerschmitt fighter factory here. They obtained great results but at a loss rate of almost 20 percent. This attack, along with the simultaneous strike on Schweinfurt's ball-bearing factories, caused the recall of many German fighters from the Eastern front. The factory was attacked again in February of 1944. This city was also attacked as a fuel or oil industry target in June of 1944.
Reims - A city in France which is located east of Paris and south of Belgium at 49 15N and 4 02E. It was liberated by the Allies in the fall of 1944. The targets at Reims included an airfield (primarily used by Bf 110's), an aircraft plant, a small armaments factory, a railyard, one stone road bridge and one iron rail bridge.
Remagen - This German city, located at 50 34N and 007 14E, maintained the only standing bridge over the Rhine River. The Ludendorf Bridge was captured by the US 9th Armored Division on the 7th of March, 1945, and opened the way for the Allies to march into the heart of Germany.
Rennes - A city in France located at 48 7N and 1 41W in the northwestern portion of the country. The railyards at Rennes were targeted as part of the pre-invasion preparations to disrupt Germany's ability to move reinforcements into the hedgerow country.
Rhein-Main - During the war this was an air base in Germany located at 51 52N and 6 02E. This base lies very close to the Rhein River and against the Netherlands border. Its location placed it only about 20 miles south of the German airfield at Deelen in the Netherlands. On the 3rd of June, 1944 this field contained the 34 Ju 88 night-fighters of I/NJG 2.
Rheine - This German city is located in the northwest corner of the country near the border with the Netherlands and was a vital link in the German railway system. The Rheine targets included the airfield, which based an Bf 109 squadron, an armaments factory, the railyard, two stone road bridges, two stone rail bridges and one wooden rail bridge.
Rochester - This British city at 51 24N and 0 30E lies where the Thames River meets the North Sea. It was the home of the Short Brothers factory, a producer of the British Stirling Bomber. Attacked on the 15th of August, 1940, and the damage delayed the manufacture of the Stirling for months. Attacked and damaged again on the 4th of September, 1940, and again on the 18th of September, 1940.
Rochford - A satellite field in the Hornchurch sector of the No. 11 Group. In July of 1940 this base was home to the No. 54 Squadron with 12 Spitfires. Thirty Do 17's attacked this field on the 28th of August, 1940, doing only slight damage.
Romilly - A city in France located at 48 31 N and 3 44E in the northern part of the country, east of Paris. The only targets of any significance, however minor, at Romilly were a railyard and a stone road bridge.
Rosieres - An airfield in France in the northern portion of the country inland from Abbeville at 49 49N and 2 43E.On the 7th of September, 1940, this airfield was the home of five He 111's of Stab KG1, who were participating in the Battle of Britain.
Rostock - This city is located at 54 05N and 12 07E on the Baltic Sea coast of northern Germany. Production from this German city had to do with the aircraft industry. Rostock was attacked heavily during the "Big Week" of February, 1944. In particular this city housed the Heinkel aircraft factories. Secondary targets at this site included an airfield (Bf 110's were stationed there), a small armaments factory, a ship yard, oil storage tanks, warehouses, a stone road bridge and a stone rail bridge. Ground based air defenses were moderate too heavy.
Rotenburg - An industrial site in Germany located at 53 07N, 009 24E. Rotenburg played a minor role in the manufacture of aircraft components. Primary intercept responsibility in the area was held by Jagddivision 1. Rotenburg wasn't a primary target for the Allied strategic bomber command.
Rotterdam - This city in the western portion of Amsterdam was an Allied industrial target during its German occupation. The docks here were first bombed by the USAAF in late August of 1942. This city had the dubious distinction of being bombed while under surrender negotiations with the Germans in 1940. The strategic targets at Rotterdam were the railyard, ship yard, and petroleum storage tanks.
Roubaix - A city in France located at 50 40N and 3 10E it sits right on the border with Belgium. The only targets at this city were a small armaments factory and one stone rail bridge. Flak concentrations were light.
Rouen - This French city lies on the Seine River close to the coast at 49 26N and 1 05E. It was an Allied industrial target during the German occupation of the city. The Sotteville railroad marshaling yards here were the subject of the first attack by the USAAF against the Germans on August 17th of 1942. Other raids focused on a weapons factory that was within the city's boundaries and several important road and rail bridges.
Ruhland - This city on the Elbe River in eastern Germany lies close to Czechoslovakia at 51 27N and 13 52E. The oil refinery here was bombed by the USAAF on the 21st of June, 1944. Factories here were also bombed by the USAAF on the 2nd of March, 1945.
Rye - A British coastal radar warning site at 50 57N and 0 44E it lies between the sites at Pevensey and Dover. Bombed on the 12th of August and out of action on the 15th of August again due to loss of power from bombing attacks. This was also the name of a Bomber field used by the 8th Air Force during its stay in England.
Saarbrucken - This German city lies right on the border with France at 49 14N and 06 59E. As the home of a significant refining facility, several chemical plants, munitions works, and a logistical staging facility, it was frequently targeted by the Allied bombing campaign. The marshaling yards here were attacked extremely effectively by the USAAF on March 22nd of 1944. A nearby airfield housed two Bf 109 squadrons.
Salzbergen - This town lies in the north of Germany near the border with the Netherlands at 52 19N and 07 20E and was important to Germany's oil industry. Salzbergen's targets included an airfield, a small oil plant, a small armaments factory and one wooden rail bridge. Fw 190's ran intercept missions from the airfield throughout 1943 and 44, until fuel shortages effectively grounded the surviving pilots.
Salzgitter - This town in central Germany at 52 10N and 10 25E was targeted primarily because of its contribution to the oil industry. Ground based air defenses were listed as moderate in Salzgitter, according to several independent after action reports by Allied groups.
Salzwedel - An industrial site in Germany located at 52 51N and 11 10E. Salzwedel played a minor role in the manufacture of aircraft components. Primary intercept responsibility in the area was held by Jagddivision 1. Salzwedel wasn't a primary target for the Allied Strategic Bomber Command.
Sarreguemines - This French town lies right on the border with Germany at 49 06N and 07 03E. It contained a small armaments factory. Post invasion sorties also focused on the destruction of two wooden bridges near the town, one rail and one road, to interdict German supplies moving to the front.
Schipol - An airfield in Amsterdam at 52 17N and 04 40E. On the 7th of September, 1940, it was the home of fourteen Ju 88's belonging to III/KG 4. Bf 109's occasionally operated out of this field as well.
Scholven - This town lies in the Ruhr valley region of Germany at 51 36N and 07 01E. The town was an oil industry target for Allied bombers. Synthetic lubricants essential to Tiger and Panther Tanks, as well as some aircraft hydraulics, were manufactured here. Ground based AA defenses were moderate near Scholven.
Schweinfurt - This city in south central Germany was an industrial target for Allied bombers. This city contained the five ball-bearing factories that were essential to German fighter production. The U.S. Eighth Air Force attacked with 376 bombers on the 17th of August, 1943, and lost 147 of them. This city was attacked again on the 14th of October, 1943, by 291 USAAF bombers with 60 lost and 142 damaged. These heavy losses put a stop to all raids deep into Germany until the Big Week of February 1944 where the city was again attacked. The British finally attacked this important target during April of 1944. All in all, the attacks were not effective as the Germans quickly repaired damages and moved some of their production out to rural areas. But the attacks did cause the Luftwaffe to move aircraft from the Eastern front for protection of its vital industries.
Selsey - This was a British airfield during the war at 50 44N and 0 48W. This Tangmere sector field lay just to the east of Portsmouth.
Shipdham - This airfield was used by the Eighth Air Force during the war and was located at 52 40N and 1 02E and lay to the west of Norwich. The B-17's of the 44th Bomber Group operated and bombed Germany from this base.
Siracourt - This city in the northern tip of France at 49 56N and 1 38E was used by its German occupiers as a staging area for V-1 launches against England. As such, it was subject to periodic bombardment by light formations of Allied aircraft. Generally, however, the Germans repaired any damage inflicted by these raids fairly quickly.
Sottevast - This French town lies in the northern portion of the country close to the English Channel and south of Cherbourg at 49 25N and 1 20W. The Germans launched V-1 rockets at Britain from here in 1944.
Southampton - A British city at 50 55N and 1 25W just to the northwest of Portsmouth on the English Channel. The city was bombed on the 24th of September, 1940, and frequently thereafter. The target of the attack, performed by Experimental Group 210, was the Woolston Spitfire factory. Close to Plymouth, its leadership reacted poorly to the Blitz or constant bombing. It was reported that the mayor used to leave the city every evening at three p.m. to avoid the nightly bombings, this caused major problems with the morale of factory workers.
St. Dizier - This French city outside of Paris was heavily strafed during the Eighth Air Force's large-scale missions in May. Over 400 heavy bombers attacked the airfields in preparation to the D-Day invasion.
St. Lô - On the 3rd of July, 1944, the XIX Corps drove southward to the high-ground around St. Lô, France. The Axisfirmly entrenched at the 49 07N and 001 05E locationoffered firm resistance, and the terrain restricted the use of armor. A bomb carpet using 4200 tons of munitions was laid down and the First Army moved forward with a ground assault. The twelve-day attack was successfulthough casualties were high (11,000)and the Americans claimed the town on the 18th of July.
St. Nazaire - A French port city, its harbor contained the only dry-dock on the Atlantic coast large enough to hold the German Battleship Tirpitz. This was destroyed in a commando raid in March of 1942 to prevent its possible use as mentioned. The submarine pens for German U-boats here were a priority target for Allied bombing from October of 1942 until the Spring of 1943. This target was nicknamed "Flak City" by American bomber crews.
St. Omer - This French town contained an airfield used by the British until its capture by the Germans during the battle for France. Thereafter, St. Omer-Wizernes field was used by the Germans. In the autumn of 1942 this field was the home of 10(Jabo)/JG 26 and their Fw 190's.The actual location of the field is 50 45N and 2 15E in the very north of the country and close to Belgium.
St. Trond - A Luftwaffe airfield located in occupied France. St Tronde was periodically used by He-111's and Ju 87's during the Battle of Britain, but it was primarily a Bf 109 field. St. Tronde was heavily bombed by tactical aircraft prior to the Normandy invasion in 1944.
Stade - A city in Germany located at 53 35N and 9 29E. The airfield here like the town lies close to Hamburg and the Elbe estuary and sits to the major cities east. On the 3rd of June, 1944, this field held the 28 Bf 110G-4's of III/NJG 3, a night-fighter squadron.
Stralsund - A city in Germany located on the Baltic Sea coast of the country at 54 18N and 13 4E. The targets at Stralsund included the ship yard, a maritime fuel oil tank field and a supply dump. Air defenses in and around Stralsund were considered moderate.
Strasbourg - A French city located at 48 35N and 7 42E, it lies just to the west of the Rhine River and the border of Germany. The railyard was the primary target in this city, with secondary targets of two stone road bridges, one wooden road bridge, one stone rail bridge and an iron rail bridge.
Stuttgart - This city lies in the southwestern portion of Germany and was an Allied industrial target. On September 6th, 1943, the VKF ball-bearing plant here was attacked by the Eighth Air force. This city was bombed again during the "Big Week" in February of 1944. Additional targets in Stuttgart included an airfield, which was home to Bf 109's and Ju 88's, a Ju 88 assembly line, a small armaments factory, a railroad switching facility and a supply dump.
Tangmere - An RAF sector field in the No. 11 Group at 50 58N and 0 51W near Portsmouth. In July 1940 this field contained the No. 43 Squadron with 13 Hurricanes, the No. 145 Squadron with 11 Hurricanes, the No. 601 Squadron with 15 Hurricanes and the FIU (Night-Fighter Interception Unit) with four Blenheims.
Thorney Island - This was a British satellite field in the Tangmere sector of the No. 11 Group at 50 58N and 0 01W just to the North and east of Portsmouth.
Tours - This town in France is located in the northwest portion of the country on the Loire River at 47 23N and 0 41E. The airfield here was, on the 7th of September of 1940, the home of 17 He 111's of Stab KG 27 and I/KG 27.
Trier - A town in Germany close to the Moselle River 49 45N and 6 38E. This town lies along the rail line between the Ruhr area of Germany and the capital of Luxembourg, just to the east of the Luxembourg border. At different times, Allied raids targeted munitions factories, train stations and bridges near Trier.
Troyes - A city in France that lies at the foot of the eastern mountains at 48 19N and 4 3E. Troyes was tactically and industrially of little significance. Three bridges near the city were targeted during the Summer of 1944, both pre and post-invasion.
Trueleigh - One of many British early warning radar station sites. These target types were attacked heavily in the first month of the Battle of Britain.
Tutow - This city of central Germany lies to the east of Leipzig at 51 20N and 12 23E. It was an industrial target for Allied bombers during the war. The targets here included a Ju 88 aircraft plant and a logistical staging point. Flak concentrations near Tutow were moderate.
Twente - A Luftwaffe airfield located at 52 25N, 006 30E in the Netherlands. Home to units of Jagddivision 3 until liberated by the Allies in 1944.
Ulm - French General de Lattre planned in early April to be in Ulm by the 25th of April. The city, located in Germany at 48 24N and 010 00E, was forty-four miles east of the French zone. De Lattre refused to be deterred however, based on several rationalizations, his primary intent being to re-awaken the memory of Napolean's triumph over the Austrians in 1805 and re-affirm French morale. On the 23rd of April, the French platoon arrived in Ulm. The next dayreinforced by the 44th Division's 324th Infantry, the 10th Armored Division's CCR, and two additional French battalionscombat was initiated. By nightfall, most of the resistance was handled, and the city of Ulm was back in the Allies' handsand flying the French flag.
Vannes - This airfield lies in France on the Atlantic coast or western side of the country. On the 7th of September, 1940, this airfield was manned by the men and machines of KGr 100. At this time the unit consisted of seven He 111's. Bf 109's occasionally used the field as well. The port city is located at 47 40N; 002 44W. During Operation Cobra, General Omar Bradley's master plan for the whole Brittany campaign, General Patton's 4th Armored Division was assigned the central thrust to liberate Vannes and Lorient. XIX Tactical Air Command was assigned close air support duties in support of this advance. Flying Thunderbolts and Mustangs, these pilots were so adept at finding and taking out enemy targets that Patton's men literally began to complain that they had nothing left to fight.
Vegesack - This city in northern Germany was an industrial target for the Allies. The Bremer Vulkan shipbuilding yards here were attacked on the 18th of March, 1943, by the USAAF. These yards were fourth in production of German U-boats.
Ventnor - A British radar site on the Isle of Wight. Initially attacked by the Ju 88's of KG 51 and KG 54 on the 12th of August, 1940, and knocked out for 11 days. Attacked again on the 16th of August, 1940, by five Stuka's.
Villacoublay - An airfield occupied by the Germans and used in the Battle of Britain. The field actually lies to the southeast of Paris at 48 45N and 2 10E. In 1940 the He 111's of KG 55 bombed Britain from this base.
Vitry - This airfield in France lies at 50 20N and 2 59E in the northern tip of the country near the border with Belgium. Vitry based Bf 109's, but many of these squadrons later converted to Fw-190's.
Waltham Abbey - This British town lies to the northeast of London at 51 42N and 0 01E. The primary target here was a large armaments factory.
Watten - This city in the northern tip of France at 50 20N and 2 13E was a V-1 launch site. It was otherwise tactically insignificant.
Wesseling - This city, near the Rhine River in eastern Germany was important to the German oil industry. Ground based AA fire intensified along the approach routes to the refinery, but the city was otherwise lightly defended.
West Malling - This was an airfield in the Biggin Hill sector of the No. 11 Group at 51 16N and 0 24E.
Westhampnett - A British airfield in the Tangmere sector of the No. 11 group approximately 20 miles north of Portsmouth. On the 8th of August, 1940 this field contained the No. 145 Squadron and their 16 Hurricanes.
Wevelghem - This airfield in Belgium located at 50 48N and 3 10E was used by the Luftwaffe during its occupation. Bf 109's flew fighter sweeps and intercept missions from this field until they were forced to fall back in advance of Allied troops and relocate to sites closer to Berlin.
Weybridge - This British city lies southwest of London at 51 23N and 0 28W. The Vickers aircraft factory which produced two-thirds of all Wellington bombers was bombed here on the 4th of September, 1940, by Experimental Gruppe 210 of the Luftwaffe.
Wiesbaden - A city in Germany located at 50 4N and 8 14E lies on the east bank of the Rhine River, west of Frankfurt. Wiesbaden was home to a chemical plant, several supply depots, a munitions dump and an armaments factory. The railyard at Wiesbaden was the focus of several sorties, because German troop trains used this route extensively.
Wilhelmshaven - This city lies on the North Sea coast of Germany and was an industrial target for Allied bombing. The naval barracks here was bombed by the RAF using B-17's on the 8th of July, 1941. The U-boat construction yards here were the first target in Germany the USAAF bombed. Walter Cronkite was along for the ride as a war correspondent on this day (February 26th, 1943).
Wismar - A city in Germany located at 53 54N and 11 29E on the Baltic Sea coast of the country. The targets at Wismar were the aircraft plant, a warehouse, a stone road bridge and an iron rail bridge.
Wissant - Home field of Jagdeschwader 51, located at 50 52N and 01 40E. Two of the three Gruppes of JG-51 were based at this air strip. The third was based at St. Omer. All of the Gruppes flew the Bf 109e. JG-51 was commanded by the famous Luftwaffe Ace, Major Werner Molders. Molders was instrumental in the development of many Luftwaffe Schwarm and Staffel tactics during the Spanish Civil War.
Wizernes - This French city lies in the northern tip of the country and was a V-1 site with two launching ramps and two light flak batteries for protection. Like most other sites of its kind, Wizernes was frequently knocked out of action, but never for any appreciable period of time.
Woensdrecht - This airfield lies near the Belgian and Netherlands border at 51 19N and 4 27E. It was used by the Luftwaffe for Fw-190 interceptors.
Wormingford - The home airfield of the 55th Fighter Group of the Eighth Air Force from the 16th of April, 1944, to the 21st July, 1945. The 55th was the first P-38 group to go into combat with the Eighth, and they were initially based at Nuthampstead. They began conversion to the P-51 in July, 1944. Collectively, this group destroyed more railroad trains by strafing than any other unit. The group's war record was as follows: 316.5 air victories, 268.5 ground victories, 181 squadron aircraft lost or missing in action.
Wunstorf - German city located at 52 10N and 13 28E. Primary air defense responsibilities belonged to Jagddivision 2. Early in 1944, III/ZG 26 was based at Wunstorf near Hanover. The unit's role was to engage US heavy bombers making daylight attacks on targets in Germany. During the first five days of "Big Week," when the U.S. Eighth and Fifteenth Air Forces mounted a concerted effort against German aircraft production centers, III/ZG 26 tangled with American escorts in every intercept they made. Over the course of the week long action, III/ZG 26 suffered 30 aircraft lost or heavily damaged, with less than a dozen bomber kills in response. American escort tactics were improving.
Würzburg - Between the 13th and 24th of March 1945, the Allied IX TAC flew over 6,000 sorties and dropped over 2,000 tons of bombs. One of the primary targets was this German air base at 49 48N and 009 56E. Few of the German planes accepted combat during this time.
Zeitz - This town lies in central Germany south of Leipzig at 51 03N and 12 08E. It was an oil industry target for Allied bombers as it contained a synthetic plant. It was the subject of repeated attacks in May of 1944. Secondary targets included an aircraft plant, a small armaments factory, a railyard, two warehouse complexes, a stone road bridge, an iron road bridge, a stone rail bridge and an iron rail bridge. Air defenses in the area were moderate.
Zwickau - This city is located at 50 44N and 12 29E in central Germany just north of the border with Czechoslovakia. It was home to a synthetic oil plant and was repeatedly bombed in May of 1944. Secondary targets included a small aircraft plant, a stone road bridge and a stone rail bridge. Zwickau was heavily defended for a city its size.