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 TFX | by Digital Image Design

TFX: by Digital Image Design

HUD (Heads Up Display) from TXX, 1993

APPENDIX TWO ELEMENTS OF AN AIRPLANE

WINGS
The wings are there to create lift. In a fighter, they are usually swept back to reduce drag at high Mach numbers.

TAILPLANE
Or horizontal tail. Stabilizes the aircraft, by creating a nose down moment at high angles of attack. It is also used to control pitching (see ELEVATORS).

TAILFIN
Or vertical tail, stabilizes the aircraft, by creating a yawing moment when the aircraft is side-slipping. It is also used for steering (see RUDDER).

CONTROL SURFACES

AILERONS
These are parts of the wing on the trailing edge, hinged so as to be mobile, which are deflected in opposite directions to roll the aircraft, by increasing lift on one wing and decreasing it on the other.

ELEVATORS
These are usually located on the tailplane. Often, they are the tailplane. The elevators create a pitching moment to change angle of attack or maneuver the aircraft.

RUDDER
This is usually a hinged surface on the trailing edge of the tailfin, which is used to steer the aircraft at low speed and to co-ordinate turns and to control rolling at high angles of attack.

HIGH LIFT DEVICES

FLAPS
Like ailerons, these can be on the trailing edge of the wing, but are used to increase lift overall and increase the maximum lift. They are used to reduce take-off and landing speed and distance. Deployed flaps increase drag, and so are retracted at higher speeds. Many airplanes have leading edge flaps which increase maximum lift, although they slightly decrease the lift at any given angle of attack.

SLATS
These extendible devices take the place of leading edge flaps, delaying stall at high angles of attack.

ENGINES

The jet engine is a device which takes in air, propels it to high speed, and ejects it at the back, producing thrust. There are two main kinds:

TURBO-JET
Takes in air at the front, compresses it, and burns fuel inside a combustion chamber. The hot, high speed jet of gas drives a turbine (hence 'turbo'), a windmill-like rotor at the back, which powers the compressor, which is like a many-bladed propeller, and leaves from the nozzle, accelerating to supersonic velocities.

TURBO-FAN
Puts only a proportion of the compressed air into the combustion chamber - the rest flows around the outside of the combustion chamber and meets with the jet flow after the turbine. A turbo- fan is more efficient than an equivalent turbo-jet, but produces less thrust.

Almost all modern jet engines are turbo-fans, but the new high thrust engines which will power the F-22 and Eurofighter 2000 are turbo-fans with low bypass ratios, meaning that most of the air flows through the combustion chamber.

AFTERBURNER
For extra thrust in certain situations, more fuel is put into the mixture than can be burned in the combustion chamber. When it meets the outside air in the nozzle, the fuel is lit, producing very high thrust, at the expense of high fuel consumption. The system which does this is called an afterburner, and the effects can often be seen as a visible flame coming from the nozzles.

UNDERCARRIAGE

Or landing gear. A set of wheels put down for landing to support the aircraft on the runway. It must be retracted at higher speeds in the air as it causes drag and is not designed for high speed flight.

THE ELEMENTS OF AN AIRPLANE IN TFX

All of the above elements are modeled in TFX in terms of their effects on the force and turning characteristics of the airplanes. For example, moving the joystick (or mouse) up and down (or pressing the up and down arrow keys) adjusts the elevator position. This affects the angle of attack, which in turn affects wing lift and thus maneuver the aircraft.

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From the manual